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AUTOMATION OF A THREAD ROLLING MACHINE FOR USE IN A
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AUTOMATION OF A THREAD ROLLING MACHINE,FOR USE IN A FLEXIBLE WORKCELL. Approved by,Dr Shreyes Melkote Advisor,School of Mechanical Engineering. Georgia Institute of Technology,Dr Steven Danyluk,School of Mechanical Engineering. Georgia Institute of Technology,Dr Steve Dickerson. Professor Emeritus,School of Mechanical Engineering.
Georgia Institute of Technology,Date Approved July 6 2007. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, I would like to take this opportunity to thank a number of persons who made this. thesis and project possible First my advisor Dr Shreyes Melkote provided unwavering. support through many changes in this project s focus His constant guidance and. encouragement provided direction and mentorship for which I am grateful My sincere. thanks also go to John Morehouse for his contractual work and negotiation that made this. project a reality, I also thank Alcoa Fastening Systems for funding this project and providing me. with this tremendous opportunity Special thanks go to Curtis Lea Luke Haylock and. Martin Ryan for supporting this project Also I thank everyone at Alcoa Fastening. Systems City of Industry whom which I had the pleasure of working. My most sincere gratitude goes to Dr Steve Dickerson and the staff at CAMotion. robotics Their trust in me as a designer and adopted employee took this project from. drawing board to reality and provided me with an incredible learning opportunity. Finally I thank my family for their constant support throughout this process My. mother Barbara provided countless words of encouragement when I needed them her. constant support made the impossible seem possible My father Eugene provided me. with the skills to solve countless design problems through many late nights in our garage. and participated in many design discussions via telephone when I needed the opinion of a. fellow hot rodder,TABLE OF CONTENTS,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii. LIST OF TABLES x,LIST OF FIGURES xi,LIST OF SYMBOLS xv.
SUMMARY xvi,CHAPTER 1 1,1 1 Background 3,1 2 Problem Statement 4. 1 3 Motivation 5,1 4 Outline 6,CHAPTER 2 8,2 1 The Thread Rolling Process 8. 2 2 Trends in Thread Rolling Equipment 13,2 3 Fastener Feeding Technology 14. 2 4 Overview of Research in Grasping 16,2 4 1 Optimum Grasps and Grasp Quality 17. 2 4 2 Gripper jaw design 19,2 4 3 Part orienting by pushing 20.
2 4 4 Fixture planning 21,2 5 Summary 22,CHAPTER 3 23. 3 1 Problem Overview 23,3 2 Performance Goals for the Cell 25. 3 2 1 Reduced Labor Costs 25,3 2 2 Increased Throughput 26. 3 2 3 Flexibility 26,3 2 4 Ease of Implementation 28. 3 3 Proposed Cell Concepts 28,3 3 1 Highly Automated Sequential Cell 28.
3 3 2 Reduced Automation Batch Transfer Cell 33,3 3 3 Discrete Time Analysis 36. 3 3 3 1 Discrete Time Analysis of Current Method of Production 38. 3 3 3 2 Sequential Cell Discrete Time Analysis 42, 3 3 3 3 Reduced Automation Batch Cell Discrete Time Analysis 45. 3 3 3 4 Discrete Time Analysis Conclusions 45,3 4 Selecting a Workcell Concept 46. 3 5 Selecting a Method of Part Transport 48,3 5 1 Orienting Fasteners at Each Machine 49. 3 5 2 Maintaining Orientation During Transport 50,3 5 3 Design for Current Application 51.
3 6 Summary 55,CHAPTER 4 57,4 1 Problem Overview 58. 4 2 Planning the Process 63, 4 2 1 Dual Gripping System vs Dual Heating Coil 65. 4 2 2 Testing the Dual Coil 67,4 2 3 Transport Tray Planning 69. 4 3 Motion Planning 71,4 3 1 Pick and Place Point Arrangement 71. 4 3 2 Moving in the Developed Workspace 74,4 3 3 Cycle Time Prediction 75.
4 4 Gripping System Design 78,4 4 1 Design Requirements 78. 4 4 2 Concept Selection 79,4 4 3 Shaping the Gripper Fingers 82. 4 4 4 Gripper Finger Material Selection 87,4 5 Overview of Remaining Design Details 92. 4 5 1 Main Frame 93,4 5 2 Y and Z Axes 94,4 5 3 Tray Drive 95. 4 5 4 Heating Frame 96,4 5 5 Post Processing Area 98.
4 5 6 Alignment Issues 99,4 5 7 Guarding Scheme 100. 4 5 8 Sensing The Thread Roller s Position 101,4 6 Summary 101. CHAPTER 5 103,5 1 Motivation for the Grasping Model 103. 5 1 1 Modes of Part Grasping 103,5 1 2 Current Application 104. 5 2 The Two Dimensional Case 106,5 2 1 Two Dimensional Error Formulation 107.
5 2 2 Two Dimensional Results 109,5 3 The Three Dimensional Case 111. 5 3 1 Three Dimensional Approach 111,5 3 2 Three Dimensional Error Description 114. 5 3 3 Representing the Gripper Faces 115,5 3 4 Representing the Parts to be Grasped 117. 5 4 Geometric Calculations 118,5 4 1 Inducing Error 118. 5 4 2 Determining Points of Contact 120,5 4 3 Final Geometric Calculations 124.
5 5 Kinematic Calculations 125,5 5 1 Determining Unit Vectors 126. 5 5 2 Unit Normal Vectors 127,5 5 3 Unit Tangent Vectors 127. 5 5 4 Determining Forces 129,5 5 5 Gripping Force Input 130. 5 5 6 Assembling the Matrix of Equations 133,5 6 Interpreting the Results 134. 5 6 1 Predicting Motion 134,5 6 2 Criteria for Part Alignment 137.
5 7 Summary 138,CHAPTER 6 140,6 1 Model Implementation 140. 6 1 1 Visualizing the Results 141,6 1 2 Formatting the Results 142. 6 1 3 Initial Model Results 144,6 1 4 Conclusions about Model Results 148. 6 2 Variation of Model Parameters 149,6 2 1 Varying Gripping Force 149. 6 2 2 Varying Part Shape 150,6 2 3 Varying Part Dimensions 152.
6 3 Validating the Model Results 157, 6 3 1 Experimentally Determining the Error Boundaries 157. 6 3 2 Determining Coefficient of Friction 160,6 3 3 Model Verification 164. 6 4 Impact on the Automation System Design 171,6 5 Summary 173. CHAPTER 7 175,7 1 Overall System 175,7 2 System Tuning 178. 7 3 Cycle Times 180,7 4 Gripping System 180,7 5 Summary 181.
CHAPTER 8 182,8 1 Conclusions 182,8 2 Recommendations 184. REFERENCES 188,LIST OF TABLES, Table 3 1 Simulation results for current production method 41. Table 3 2 Simulation results for sequential cell 44. Table 3 3 Comparisons of cell performance criteria 47. Table 4 1 Thread rolling process cycle times 60,Table 4 2 Coil prototype design parameters 67. Table 4 3 Coil test results 68,Table 4 4 Coil tensile test results 69. Table 4 5 Tray processing times 70,Table 4 6 Automation cycle time prediction 77.
Table 4 7 Gripper tooling sizes 86, Table 6 1 Coefficient of static friction s on A 2 tool steel 50 HRC 163. Table 6 2 Statistics of experimental results 163, Table 7 1 Command shaping frequencies employed 179. LIST OF FIGURES,Figure 1 1 Typical aerospace fastener 1. Figure 2 1 Typical thread rolling process Anon 1987 9. Figure 2 2 Flat die thread rolling process Anon 1987 10. Figure 2 3 Cylindrical die thread rolling process Anon 1987 11. Figure 2 4 Planetary die thread rolling process Anon 1987 11. Figure 2 5 Vibratory bowl feeder Boothroyd 1992 14. Figure 2 6 Coiled tube magazine storage system 16, Figure 3 2 Fastener production process considered for workcell 24. Figure 3 3 Highly automated sequential cell 29,Figure 3 4 Cell with loopback first phase 31.
Figure 3 5 Cell with loopback second phase 32, Figure 3 6 Reduced automation batch transfer workcell 34. Figure 3 7 Arena discrete time simulation 37, Figure 3 8 Schematic of current method of production 39. Figure 3 9 Schematic of sequential cell 42,Figure 3 10 Prototyped transport tray 52. Figure 3 11 Transport tray locating feature 53, Figure 3 12 Complete set of prototyped transport trays 54. Figure 4 1 Reed cylindrical three die thread roller 59. Figure 4 2 Detail of die and die hanger arrangement 59. Figure 4 3 Automation system processing stations 63. Figure 4 4 Existing single coil heating unit 65,Figure 4 5 Dual induction coil design 66.
Figure 4 6 Three dimensional automation workspace 72. Figure 4 7 Two dimensional automation workspace 73. Figure 4 8 Gripper pneumatic cylinder concept 81, Figure 4 9 Schunk PZB 100 with generic finger blanks 81. Figure 4 10 Modes of hex headed grasping 82,Figure 4 11 Finger profile shape restrictions 83. Figure 4 12 Gripper finger clearance in transport tray 84. Figure 4 13 Gripper finger clearance in thread rolling die 85. Figure 4 14 Gripper finger features 87, Figure 4 15 Gripper finger finite element analysis 88. Figure 4 16 Replaceable gripper finger face 89, Figure 4 17 Prototyped gripper fingers with replaceable faces installed 90. Figure 4 18 Prototyped gripping system 90,Figure 4 19 Automation system axes of motion 92.
Figure 4 20 Welded steel main frame 93,Figure 4 21 Y Z axis assembly 94. Figure 4 22 Tray drive assembly 95,Figure 4 23 Heating subframe 96. Figure 4 24 Ceramic bolt heating plate 97,Figure 4 25 Post processing area 98. Figure 4 26 Adjustable design for assembly concept 99. Figure 4 27 Machine guarding scheme 100,Figure 5 1 Example of part reference feature 105. Figure 5 2 Part error in two dimensions 107,Figure 5 3 Part dimensions for 2D analysis 108.
Figure 5 4 Dimensions for 2D force and moment balance 108. Figure 5 5 Results for 2D error analysis 110, Figure 5 6 Three dimensional analysis flow chart 113. Figure 5 7 Part axes in 3D 114, Figure 5 8 Gripper and representative geometry 115. Figure 5 9 Analysis geometry with relevant dimensions 116. Figure 5 10 Contact points in 3D 120,Figure 5 11 Determining points of contact 122. Figure 5 12 Determining part offset 124, Figure 5 13 Normal and tangential unit vectors 126. Figure 5 14 Gripping force relationships 131, Figure 5 15 Free body diagram for relating gripping forces 132.
Figure 5 16 Decision process to determine desirable motion 136. Figure 5 17 Example of alignment with one point of motion 137. Figure 6 1 Describing part error using a planar projection 142. Figure 6 2 Illustration of self alignment boundary concept 143. Figure 6 3 0 400 tall 1 wide hex part as tested in grasping model 144. Figure 6 4 Model results with contours for varying values of s 145. Figure 6 5 Self alignment boundaries pictured relative to gripper finger position 146. Figure 6 6 Top view of model results and gripper finger locations 147. Figure 6 7 1 00 diameter 0 400 tall round headed part 151. Figure 6 8 Model results with contours for varying values of s 151. Figure 6 9 Model results with contours for varying values of s 153. Figure 6 10 Model results with contours for varying values of s 154. Figure 6 11 Model results with contours for varying values of s 155. Figure 6 12 Model results with contours for varying values of s 156. Figure 6 13 Test part for experimental validation 158. Figure 6 14 Grasped test part projecting alignment onto reference plane 159. Figure 6 15 Typical profile of during friction experiment 161. Figure 6 16 Experimentally determined boundary for 1018 steel 164. Figure 6 17 Predicted boundary limits for 1018 steel hex part with 400 165. Figure 6 18 Predicted and measured boundary limits for 1018 steel hex part with 166. Figure 6 19 Predicted and measured boundary limits for 1018 steel 168. Figure 6 20 Predicted and measured boundary limits for 1018 steel 169. Figure 6 21 Predicted and measured boundary limits for 1018 steel 170. Figure 7 1 Assembled automation system 176,Figure 7 2 Assembled heating area 177. Figure 7 3 Assembled tray drive system 177,LIST OF SYMBOLS. tbatch time to process a batch of parts,nparts number of parts in a batch. tslow slowest cycle time in the overall process,tpart avg average time to produce one part. tinprocess time a piece or batch spends in production. tcycle n cycle time of process n,tmove time to complete an end effector move.
dmove length of an end effector move,vmax maximum end effector velocity. amove end effector acceleration deceleration,part angular error in 2 D analysis. h part head height in 2 D analysis,d part head diameter in 2 D analysis. lx ly moment lengths for 2 D analysis,dg gripper opening distance. Rg gripper face radius,xc yc zc potential contact point on gripping face.
xp yp zp discrete point in contact with gripping face.

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