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How to carry out a literature search for a systematic review. of depression in children They found that published Scoping search. data suggested favourable risk bene t pro les for Before conducting a comprehensive literature search. SSRIs in this population but the addition of unpub a scoping search of the literature using just one or. lished data indicated that risk outweighed treatment two databases such as PubMed or MEDLINE can. bene ts The relative weight of drug ef cacy to side provide valuable information as to how much litera. effects can be skewed if there has been a failure to ture for a given review question already exists A. search for or include unpublished data scoping search may reveal whether systematic. In this guide for clinicians and researchers on how reviews have already been undertaken for a review. to perform a literature search we use a working question Caution should be taken however as sys. example about ef cacy of an intervention for tematic reviews that may appear to ask the same. bipolar disorder to demonstrate the search techni question may have differing inclusion and exclusion. ques outlined However the overarching methods criteria for studies included in the review In add. described are purposefully broad to make them ition not all systematic reviews are of the same. accessible to all clinicians and researchers regard quality If the original search strategy is of poor. less of their research or clinical question quality methodologically original data are likely to. have been missed and the search should not simply,be updated compare for example Naughton et al. 2014 and Caddy et al 2015 on ketamine for treat,Defining the clinical question. ment resistant depression, The review question will guide not only the search. strategy but also the conclusions that can be, drawn from the review as these will depend on Search strategy. which studies or other forms of evidence are included The rst step in conducting a literature search. and excluded from the literature review A narrow should be to develop a search strategy The search. question will produce a narrow and precise search strategy should de ne how relevant literature will. perhaps resulting in too few studies on which to be identi ed It should identify sources to be. base a review or be so focused that the results are searched list of databases and trial registries and. not useful in wider clinical settings Using an overly keywords used in the literature list of keywords. narrow search also increases the chances of missing The search strategy should be documented as an. important studies A broad question may produce integral part of the systematic review protocol Just. an imprecise search with many false positive as the rest of a well conducted systematic review. search results These search results may be too het the search strategy used needs to be explicit and. erogeneous to evaluate in one review Therefore detailed such that it could reproduced using the. from the outset choices should be made about the same methodology with exactly the same results. remit of the review which will in turn affect the or updated at a later time This not only improves. search the reliability and accuracy of the review but also. A number of frameworks can be used to break the means that if the review is replicated the difference. review question into concepts One such is the PICO in reviewers should have little effect as they will use. population intervention comparator and outcome an identical search strategy The PRISMA. framework developed to answer clinical questions Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. such as the effectiveness of a clinical intervention and Meta Analyses statement was developed to. Richardson 1995 It is noteworthy that outcome standardise the reporting of systematic reviews. concepts of the PICO framework are less often used Moher 2009 The PRISMA statement consists of. in a search strategy as they are less well de ned in a 27 item checklist to assess the quality of each. the titles and abstracts of available literature element of a systematic review items 6 7 and 8. Higgins 2011 Although PICO is widely used it is relate to the quality of literature searching and. not a suitable framework for identifying key elements also to guide authors when reporting their ndings. of all questions in the medical eld and minor adap. tations are necessary to enable the structuring of dif. ferent questions Other frameworks exist that may be Sources to search. more appropriate for questions about health policy There are a number of databases that can be. and management such as ECLIPSE expectation searched for literature but the identi cation of rele. client group location impact professionals vant sources is dependent on the clinical or research. service Wildridge 2002 or SPICE setting per question different databases have different focuses. spective intervention comparison evaluation for from more biology to more social science oriented. service evaluation Booth 2006 A detailed overview and the type of evidence that is sought i e some. of frameworks is provided in Davies 2011 databases report only randomised controlled trials. BJPsych Advances 2018 vol 24 74 82 doi 10 1192 bja 2017 3 75. Atkinson Cipriani,PsycINFO covers a range of psychological.
BOX 1 Website links of search sources to obtain published and unpublished. behavioural social and health sciences research,literature. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled,Trials CENTRAL hosts the most comprehen. Electronic databases World Health Organization International. sive source of randomised and quasi randomised, MEDLINE PubMed www ncbi nlm nih gov Clinical Trials Registry Platform WHO ICTRP. www who int ictrp controlled trials Although some of the evidence. on this register is also included in Embase and, Embase www embase com GlaxoSmithKline Study Register www gsk. MEDLINE there are over 150 000 reports,clinicalstudyregister com.
PsycINFO www apa org psycinfo indexed from other sources such as conference. Eli Lilly clinical trial results https www, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled proceedings and trial registers that would other. lilly com clinical study report csr synopses, Trials CENTRAL www cochranelibrary com wise be less accessible Dickersin 2002. Guides to further resources The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied. Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied, Health Literature CINAHL www cinahl com King s College London Library Services Health Literature CINAHL British Nursing. http libguides kcl ac uk ld php Index BNI and the British Nursing Database. British Nursing Index www bniplus co uk, content id 17678464 formerly BNI with Full Text are databases rele. Allied and Complementary Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center vant to nursing but they span literature across.
Database https www ebsco com products, Dahlgren Memorial Library https dml medical allied health community and health man. research databases amed the allied and,georgetown edu core agement journals. complementary medicine database, University of Minnesota Biomedical Library The Allied and Complementary Medicine. Grey literature databases, https hsl lib umn edu biomed help nursing Database AMED is a database speci cally for. BIOSIS Previews part of Thomson Reuters, Tutorial videos alternative treatments in medicine.
Web of Science https apps webofknow,ledge com Searches in electronic databases http. library buffalo edu hsl services instruction The examples of speci c databases given here are. Trial registries, tutorials html by no means exhaustive but they are popular and. ClinicalTrials gov www clinicaltrials gov, Using the Yale MeSH Analyzer tool http likely to be used for literature searching in medicine. Drugs FDA www accessdata fda gov library medicine yale edu tutorials 1559 psychiatry and psychology Website links for these. scripts cder daf databases are given in Box 1 along with links to. European Medicines Agency EMA www resources not mentioned above Box 1 also provides. ema europa eu a website link to a couple of video tutorials for. searching electronic databases Box 2 shows an,example of the search sources chosen for a review. of a pharmacological intervention of calcium, MEDLINE and Embase are the two main bio channel antagonists in bipolar disorder taken.
medical literature databases MEDLINE contains from a recent systematic review Cipriani 2016a. more than 22 million references from more For a comprehensive search of the literature it has. than 5600 journals worldwide In addition the been suggested that two or more electronic data. MEDLINE In Process Other Non Indexed bases should be used Suarez Almazor 2000. Citations database holds references before they Suarez Almazor and colleagues demonstrated that. are published on MEDLINE Embase has a in a search for controlled clinical trials CCTs. strong coverage of drug and pharmaceutical for rheumatoid arthritis osteoporosis and lower. research and provides over 30 million references back pain only 67 of available citations were. from more than 8500 currently published jour found by both Embase and MEDLINE Searching. nals 2900 of which are not in MEDLINE MEDLINE alone would have resulted in 25 of. These two databases however are only available available CCTs being missed and searching. to either individual subscribers or through insti Embase alone would have resulted in 15 of CCTs. tutional access such as universities and hospitals being missed However a balance between the sen. PubMed developed by the National Center for sitivity of a search an attempt to retrieve all relevant. Biotechnology Information of the US National literature in an extensive search and the speci city. Library of Medicine provides access to a free of a search an attempt to retrieve a more manage. version of MEDLINE and is accessible to able number of relevant citations is optimal. researchers clinicians and the public PubMed In addition supplementing electronic database. comprises medical and biomedical literature searches with unpublished literature searches see. indexed in MEDLINE but provides additional Obtaining unpublished literature below is likely. access to life science journals and e books to reduce publication bias The capacity of the indi. viduals or review team is likely largely to determine. In addition there are a number of subject and dis the number of sources searched In all cases a clear. cipline speci c databases rationale should be outlined in the review protocol. 76 BJPsych Advances 2018 vol 24 74 82 doi 10 1192 bja 2017 3. How to carry out a literature search for a systematic review. and are organised in a hierarchal structure Fig 1, BOX 2 Example of search sources chosen for a In both MEDLINE and Embase an explode. review of calcium channel antagonists command enables the database to search for a. in bipolar disorder Cipriani 2016a requested term as well as speci c related terms. Both narrow and broader search terms can be,Electronic databases searched. viewed and selected to be included in the search if. Embase appropriate to a topic The Yale MeSH Analyzer. MEDLINE tool mesh med yale edu can be used to help iden. MEDLINE In Process and Other Non Indexed Citations tify potential terms and phrases to include in a. PsycINFO search It is also useful to understand why relevant. CENTRAL articles may be missing from an initial search as it. produces a comparison grid of MeSH terms used, to index each article see Box 1 for a tutorial video. for the sources chosen the expertise of an informa. In addition MEDLINE also distinguishes between,tion scientist is valuable in this process. MeSH headings MH and publication type PT, terms Publication terms are less about the content.
Developing a search strategy of an article than about its type specifying for. Important methodological considerations such as example a review article meta analysis or RCT. study design may also be included in the search,strategy Dependent on the databases and supple. mentary sources chosen lters can be used to, search the literature by study design see Search for MeSH heading Bipolar Disorder. Searching electronic databases For instance if Tree Number s F03 084 500. the search strategy is con ned to one study design MeSH Unique ID D001714. term only e g randomised controlled trial RCT Entry Terms. only the articles labelled in this way will be selected Bipolar Disorders. However it is possible that in the database some Disorder Bipolar. RCTs are not labelled as such so they will not be Psychosis Manic Depressive. picked up by the ltered search Filters can help Psychosis Manic Depressive. reduce the number of references retrieved by the Manic Depressive Psychosis. search but using just one term is not 100 sensitive Manic Depressive Psychosis. especially if only one database is used i e Affective Psychosis Bipolar. MEDLINE It is important for systematic reviewers Bipolar Affective Psychosis. to know how reliable such a strategy can be and treat Psychoses Bipolar Affective. the results with caution Psychosis Bipolar Affective. Psychoses Manic Depressive,Manic Depressive Psychoses. Searching electronic databases Psychoses Manic Depressive. Identifying search terms Mania, Standardised search terms are thesaurus and index Manic State. ing terms that are used by electronic databases as a Manic States. convenient way to categorise articles allowing for State Manic. ef cient searching Individual database records States Manic. may be assigned several different standardised Depression Bipolar. search terms that describe the same or similar con Bipolar Depression. cepts e g bipolar disorder bipolar depression Manic Disorder. manic depressive psychosis mania This has the Disorder Manic. advantage that even if the original article did not Manic Disorders. use the standardised term when the article is catalo All MeSH Categories. gued in a database it is allocated that term Guaiana Psychiatry and Psychology Category. 2010 For example an older paper might refer to Broad category. Mental Disorders,manic depression but would be categorised.
Bipolar and Related Disorders, under the term bipolar disorder when catalogued Narrow category. in MEDLINE These standardised search terms Bipolar Disorder. are called MeSH medical subject headings in FIG 1 Search terms and hierarchical structure of MeSH. MEDLINE and PubMed and Emtree in Embase medical subject heading in MEDLINE and PubMed. BJPsych Advances 2018 vol 24 74 82 doi 10 1192 bja 2017 3 77. Atkinson Cipriani, Both MeSH and Emtree have their own peculiar into account when selecting and using free text. ities with variations in thesaurus and indexing terms. terms In addition not all concepts are assigned,synonyms related terms and alternative phrases. standardised search terms and not all databases,e g mood instability affective instability mood. use this method of indexing the literature It is advis. lability or emotion dysregulation, able to check the guidelines of selected databases.
abbreviations or acronyms in medical and scien,before undertaking a search In the absence of a. ti c research e g magnetic resonance imaging,MeSH heading for a particular term free text. terms could be used,lay and medical terminology e g high blood. Free text terms are used in natural language,pressure or hypertension. and are not part of a database s controlled voca,brand and generic drug names e g Prozac or.
bulary Free text terms can be used in addition to,standardised search terms in order to identify as. variants in spelling e g UK English and,many relevant records as possible Higgins 2011. American English behaviour or behavior paedi, Using free text terms allows the reviewer to search. atric or pediatric,using variations in language or spelling e g hypo. mani or mania or manic see truncation and, wildcard functions below and Fig 2 A disadvan Truncation and wildcard functions can be used in.
tage of free text terms is that they are only searched most databases to capture variations in language. for in the title and abstracts of database records and. not in the full texts meaning that when a free text truncation allows the stem of a word that may. word is used only in the body of an article it will have variant endings to be searched for. not be retrieved in the search Additionally a example a search for depress uses truncation. number of speci c considerations should be taken to retrieve articles that mention both depression. Database Ovid MEDLINE R 1946 to June Week 2 2016,Search Strategy. MeSH categories,Population search from hierarchy Box 2. 1 bipolar and related disorders or bipolar disorder 34752. 2 bipolar or bi polar adj5 disorder or depress tw 23079. Free text synonyms, 3 cyclothymi or rapid or ultradian adj5 cycl tw 4884. and related terms, 4 hypomani or mania or manic or mixed episode or rcbd tw 15999. with truncation,5 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 47621,Boolean operator OR to.
Intervention search general terms retrieve all citations including. 6 exp calcium channel blockers 76291 any of these search terms. 7 calcium channels l type 6706,8 calcium channels 24446. 9 calcium or ltcc adj2 antagonist or block or channel or inhibit or ccb or ccbs or dhp receptor tw. Intervention search terms for example drug drug class of interest Abbreviations of terms. 10 dihydropyridines 4566,11 dihydropyridine tw 8337. 12 isradipine 1339, 13 dynacirc or icaz or carboxylate or isradipin or isrodipin or lomir or prescal or vascal tw 12932. 14 6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 132982. Explode function to retrieve, Comparison RCT filter search related terms for clinical trial. 15 exp clinical trial or exp clinical trials as topic or cross over studies or double blind methos or. placebos or random allocation or single blind methos 1040841. 16 clinical adj2 trial tw 236171,17 crossover or cross over tw 60468.
18 single or doubl or trebl or tripl adj2 blind or mask or dummy or doubleblind or singleblind or. trebleblind or tripleblind tw 186739, 19 placebo or random tw 810249 NOT operator used to identify animal. 20 animal not human 4230831 studies not human studies which are. 21 15 or 16 or 17 or 18 or 19 1545540 then excluded in stage 22. 22 21 not 20 1393739,Boolean operator AND to,23 5 and 14 and 22 74. combine each search concept, FIG 2 Example of a search strategy about bipolar disorder using MEDLINE Cipriani 2016a The strategy follows the PICO. framework and includes MeSH terms free text keywords and a number of other techniques such as truncation that. have been outlined in this article Numbers in bold give the number of citations retrieved by each search. 78 BJPsych Advances 2018 vol 24 74 82 doi 10 1192 bja 2017 3. How to carry out a literature search for a systematic review. and depressive truncation symbols may vary by articles about both males and females are not. database but common symbols include and obtained by the search. wild cards substitute one letter within a word to,retrieve alternative spellings for example. wom n would retrieve the terms woman and,The conventions of each database should be.
checked before undertaking a literature search as, functions and operators may differ slightly between. Combining search terms,them Cipriani 2016b This is particularly relevant. Search terms should be combined in the search strat when using limits and lters Figure 2 shows an. egy using Boolean operators Boolean operators example search strategy incorporating many of the. allow standardised search terms and free text concepts described above The search strategy is. terms to be combined There are three main taken from Cipriani et al 2016a but simpli ed to. Boolean operators AND OR and NOT Fig 3 include only one intervention. OR this operator is used to broaden a search,nding articles that contain at least one of the. search terms within a concept Sets of terms can, be created for each concept for example the Search filters. population of interest bipolar disorder OR A number of lters exist to focus a search including. bipolar depression Parentheses are used to language date and study design or study focus. build up search terms with words within paren lters Language lters can restrict retrieval of arti. theses treated as a unit cles to the English language although if language. AND this can be used to join sets of concepts is not an inclusion criterion it should not be. together narrowing the retrieved literature to arti restricted to avoid language bias Date lters can. cles that contain all concepts for example the popu be used to restrict the search to literature from a spe. lation or condition of interest and the intervention ci ed period for example if an intervention was only. to be evaluated bipolar disorder OR bipolar made available after a certain date In addition if. depression AND calcium channel blockers good systematic reviews exist that are likely to. However if at least one term from each set of con capture all relevant literature as advised by an. cepts is not identi ed from the title or abstract of an information specialist date restrictions can be. article this article will not be identi ed by the used to search additional literature published after. search strategy It is worth mentioning here that the date of that included in the systematic review. some databases can run the search also across the In the same way date lters can be used to update. full texts For example ScienceDirect and most a literature search since the last time it was con. publishing houses allow this kind of search ducted Reviewing the literature should be a timely. which is much more comprehensive than abstract process new and potentially relevant evidence is. or title searches only produced constantly and updating the search is an. NOT this operator used less often can focus a important step especially if collecting evidence to. search strategy so that it does not retrieve speci c inform clinical decision making as publications in. literature for example human studies NOT the eld of medicine are increasing at an impressive. animal studies However in certain cases the rate Barber 2016 The lters chosen will depend on. NOT operator can be too restrictive for the research question and nature of evidence that is. example if excluding male gender from a popula sought through the literature search and the guide. tion using NOT male would also mean that any lines of the individual database that is used. Depression AND Anxiety Depression OR Anxiety Depression NOT Anxiety. FIG 3 Example of Boolean operator concepts the resulting search is the light red shaded area. BJPsych Advances 2018 vol 24 74 82 doi 10 1192 bja 2017 3 79. Atkinson Cipriani, Supplementary search techniques Searching trial registers and pharmaceutical.
Google Scholar, Google Scholar allows basic Boolean operators to be For reviews of trial interventions a number of trial. used in strings of search terms However the search registers exist ClinicalTrials gov clinicaltrials gov. engine does not use standardised search terms that provides access to information on public and privately. have been tagged as in traditional databases and conducted clinical trials in humans Results for both. therefore variations of keywords should always published and unpublished studies can be found for. be searched There are advantages and disadvantages many trials on the register in addition to information. to using a web search engine such as Google Scholar about studies that are ongoing Searching each trial. Google Scholar searches the full text of an article register requires a slightly different search strategy. for keywords and also searches a wider range of but many of the basic principles described above still. sources such as conference proceedings and books apply Basic searches on ClinicialTrials gov include. that are not found in traditional databases making searching by condition speci c drugs or interventions. it a good resource to search for grey literature and these can be linked using Boolean operators for. Haddaway 2015 In addition Google Scholar nds example bipolar disorder OR manic depressive dis. articles cited by other relevant articles produced in order AND lithium As mentioned above parentheses. the search However variable retrieval of content can be used to build up search terms More advanced. due to regular updating of Google algorithms and searches allow one to specify further search elds such. the individual s search history and location means as the status of studies study type and age of partici. that search results are not necessarily reproducible pants The US Food and Drug Administration. and are therefore not in keeping with replicable FDA hosts a database providing information about. search methods required by systematic reviews FDA approved drugs therapeutic products and. Google Scholar alone has not been shown to retrieve devices www fda gov The database with open. more literature than other traditional databases dis access to anyone not only in the USA can be searched. cussed in this article and therefore should be used in by the drug name its active ingredient or its approval. addition to other sources Bramer 2016 application number and for most drugs approved in. the past 20 years or so a review of clinical trial. Citation searching results some of which remain unpublished used as. Once the search strategy has identi ed relevant lit evidence in the approval process is available The. erature the reference lists in these sources can be European Medicines Agency EMA hosts a similar. searched This is called citation searching or back register for medicines developed for use in the. ward searching and it can be used to see where par European Union www ema europa eu An internet. ticular research topics led others This method is search will show that many other national and inter. particularly useful if the search identi es systematic national trial registers exist that depending on the. reviews or meta analyses of a similar topic review question may be relevant search sources. The World Health Organization International,Clinical Trials Registry Platform WHO ICTRP. Obtaining unpublished literature, www who int ictrp provides access to a central data. Conference abstracts base bringing a number of these national and inter. Conference abstracts are considered grey literature national trial registers together It can be searched in. i e literature that is not formally published in jour much the same way as ClinicalTrials gov. nals or books Alberani 1990 Scherer and collea A number of pharmaceutical companies now. gues found that only 52 6 of all conference share data from company sponsored clinical trials. abstracts go on to full publication of results and GlaxoSmithKline GSK is transparent in the. factors associated with publication were studies sharing of its data from clinical studies and hosts. that had RCT designs and the reporting of positive its own clinical study register www gsk clinicalstu. or signi cant results Scherer 2007 Therefore dyregister com Eli Lilly provides clinical trial. failure to search relevant grey literature might miss results both on its website www lillytrialguide. certain data and bias the results of a review com and in external registries However other. Although conference abstracts are not indexed in pharmaceutical companies such as Wyeth and. most major electronic databases they are available Roche divert users to clinical trial results in external. in databases such as BIOSIS Previews Box 1 registries These registries include both published. However as with many unpublished studies these and previously unpublished studies Searching tech. data did not undergo the peer review process that niques differ for each company and hand searching. is often a tool for assessing and possibly improving through documents is often required to identify. the quality of the publication studies, 80 BJPsych Advances 2018 vol 24 74 82 doi 10 1192 bja 2017 3. How to carry out a literature search for a systematic review. Communication with authors Cipriani A Saunders K Attenburrow MJ et al 2016a A systematic review. of calcium channel antagonists in bipolar disorder and some considerations MCQ answers. Direct communication with authors of published for their future development Molecular Psychiatry 21 1324 32 1a 2d 3b 4c 5a. papers could produce both additional data omitted Cipriani A Zhou X Del Giovane C et al 2016b Comparative efficacy and. from published studies and other unpublished tolerability of antidepressants for major depressive disorder in children. and adolescents a network meta analysis Lancet 388 881 90. studies Contact details are usually available for, the corresponding author of each paper Although Davies KS 2011 Formulating the evidence based practice question a.
review of the frameworks Evidence Based Library and Information. high quality reviews do make efforts to obtain and Practice 6 75 80. include unpublished data this does have potential Dickersin K Min YI 1993 Publication bias the problem that won t go. disadvantages the data may be incomplete and are away Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 703 135 48. likely not to have been peer reviewed It is also Dickersin K Manheimer E Wieland S et al 2002 Development of the. important to note that although reviewers should Cochrane Collaboration s CENTRAL Register of controlled clinical trials. Evaluation the Health Professions 25 38 64,make every effort to nd unpublished data in an. effort to minimise publication bias there is still Guaiana G Barbui C Cipriani A 2010 Hydroxyzine for generalised anxiety. disorder Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12 CD006815 doi. likely to remain a degree of this bias in the studies 10 1002 14651858 CD006815 pub2. selected for a systematic review Haddaway NR Collins AM Coughlin D et al 2015 The role of Google. scholar in evidence reviews and its applicability to grey literature search. Conclusions ing PLoS One 10 e0138237, Developing a literature search strategy is a key part Higgins JPT Green S 2011 Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. of Interventions Version 5 1 0 Cochrane Collaboration. of the systematic review process and the conclusions. Hopewell S Clarke M Lefebvre C et al 2007 Handsearching versus elec. reached in a systematic review will depend on the tronic searching to identify reports of randomized trials Cochrane Database. quality of the evidence retrieved by the literature of Systematic Reviews 2 MR000001 doi 10 1002 14651858 MR000001. search Sources should therefore be selected to min pub2. imise the possibility of bias and supplementary McKeever L Nguyen V Peterson SJ et al 2015 Demystifying the search. button a comprehensive PubMed search strategy for performing an. search techniques should be used in addition to elec exhaustive literature review Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. tronic database searching to ensure that an exten 39 622 35. sive review of the literature has been carried out It Moher D Liberati A Tetzlaff J et al 2009 Preferred reporting items for. is worth reminding that developing a search strategy systematic reviews and meta analyses the PRISMA statement PLoS. should be an iterative and exible process Higgins Medicine 6 e1000097. 2011 and only by conducting a search oneself Naughton M Clarke G O Leary OF et al 2014 A review of ketamine in. affective disorders Current evidence of clinical efficacy limitations of use. will one learn about the vast literature available and preclinical evidence on proposed mechanisms of action Journal of. and how best to capture it Affective Disorders 156 24 35. Richardson WS Wilson MC Nishikawa J et al 1995 The well built clini. Acknowledgements cal question a key to evidence based decisions ACP Journal Club 123. We thank Sarah Stockton for her help in drafting this. Sackett DL 1997 Evidence based medicine Seminars in Perinatology 21. article Andrea Cipriani is supported by the NIHR 3 5. Oxford cognitive health Clinical Research Facility Scherer RW Langenberg P von Elm E 2007 Full publication of. results initially presented in abstracts Cochrane Database of Systematic. References Reviews 2 MR000005 doi 10 1002 14651858 MR000005 pub3. Alberani V De Castro Pietrangeli P Mazza AM 1990 The use of grey lit Song F Parekh S Hooper L et al 2010 Dissemination and publication of. erature in health sciences a preliminary survey Bulletin of the Medical research findings an updated review of related biases Health Technology. Library Association 78 358 63 Assessment 14 1 193, Barber S Corsi M Furukawa TA et al 2016 Quality and impact of sec Suarez Almazor ME Belseck E Homik J et al 2000 Identifying clinical. ondary information in promoting evidence based clinical practice a cross trials in the medical literature with electronic databases MEDLINE. sectional study about EBMH Evidence Based Mental Health 19 82 5 alone is not enough Controlled Clinical Trials 21 476 87. Booth A 2006 Clear and present questions formulating questions for evi Turner EH Matthews AM Linardatos E et al 2008 Selective publication. dence based practice Library Hi Tech 24 355 68 of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy New. England Journal of Medicine 358 252 60, Bramer WM Giustini D Kramer BMR 2016 Comparing the coverage. recall and precision of searches for 120 systematic reviews in Embase Whittington CJ Kendall T Fonagy P et al 2004 Selective serotonin. MEDLINE and Google Scholar a prospective study Systematic reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression systematic review of pub. Reviews 5 1 7 lished versus unpublished data Lancet 363 1341 5. Caddy C Amit BH McCloud TL et al 2015 Ketamine and other glutamate Wildridge V Bell L 2002 How CLIP became ECLIPSE a mnemonic to. receptor modulators for depression in adults Cochrane Database of assist in searching for health policy management information Health. Systematic Reviews 9 CD011612 doi 10 1002 14651858 CD011612 Information Libraries Journal 19 113 5. BJPsych Advances 2018 vol 24 74 82 doi 10 1192 bja 2017 3 81. Atkinson Cipriani, MCQs 2 A search protocol 4 Literature about available treatments for.
Select the single best option for each question stem a does not need to be specified in advance of a bipolar disorder would be retrieved using. literature search the search terms, 1 A systematic literature review is b does not need to be reported in a systematic a bipolar disorder OR treatment. a an explicit and replicable method used to retrieve literature review b bipolar OR treatment. all available literature pertaining to a specific c defines which sources of literature are to be c bipolar disorder AND treatment. topic to answer a defined question searched but not how a search is to be carried d bipolar disorder NOT treatment. b a descriptive overview of selected literature out e bipolar disorder OR treatment. c an initial impression of a topic which is under d defines how relevant literature will be identified. stood more fully as a research study is conducted and provides a basis for the search strategy 5 Supplementing electronic database. d a method of gathering opinions of all clinicians or e provides a timeline for searching each electronic searches with unpublished literature. researchers in a given field database or unpublished literature source searches is likely to reduce the possibility. e a step by step process of identifying the earliest that a systematic review will have. published literature through to the latest pub 3 To identify studies from a topic in general a publication bias. lished literature medicine it would be most appropriate to b funding bias. search c language bias, a the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials d outcome reporting bias. CENTRAL e selection bias,c PsycINFO,d the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied. Health Literature CINAHL,e the British Nursing Index. 82 BJPsych Advances 2018 vol 24 74 82 doi 10 1192 bja 2017 3.

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