M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 2. 2 ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY, believed that human knowledge was capable of understanding virtually every. thing about the world and the self whereas others thought that it was not possible. to have any knowledge at all But despite all their differences there is a thread of. continuity a continuing focus among them the human attempt to understand the. world and the self using human reason This fact distinguishes these philoso. phers from the great minds that preceded them, The philosophers of ancient Greece have fascinated thinking persons for cen. turies and their writings have been one of the key influences on the development. of Western civilization The works of Plato and Aristotle especially have defined. the questions and suggested many of the answers for subsequent generations As. the great Greek statesman Pericles sagely predicted Future ages will wonder at. us as the present age wonders at us now, For a comprehensive yet readable work on Greek philosophy see W K C. Guthrie s authoritative The History of Greek Philosophy six volumes. Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1962 1981 W T Jones The Classical. Mind New York Harcourt Brace World 1969 Frederick Copleston. A History of Philosophy Volume I Greece Rome Garden City NY. Doubleday 1962 Friedo Ricken Philosophy of the Ancients translated by Eric. Watkins Notre Dame IN University of Notre Dame Press 1991 J V Luce An. Introduction to Greek Philosophy New York Thames and Hudson 1992. C C W Taylor ed Routledge History of Philosophy Volume 1 From the. Beginning to Plato London Routledge 1997 David Furley ed Routledge. History of Philosophy Volume 2 Aristotle to Augustine London Routledge. 1997 Julia Annas Ancient Philosophy A Very Short Introduction Oxford. Oxford University Press 2000 James A Arieti Philosophy in the Ancient World. Lanham MD Rowman Littlefield 2005 Anthony Kenny Ancient. Philosophy A New History of Western Philosophy Oxford University Press. 2004 and Stephanie Lynn Budin The Ancient Greeks An Introduction Oxford. Oxford University Press 2009 provide basic introductions Julie K Ward ed. Feminism and Ancient Philosophy London Routledge 1996 provides a feminist. critique while Robert S Brumbaugh The Philosophers of Greece Albany NY. SUNY Press 1981 is an accessible introduction with pictures charts and maps. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 3. 470 399 B C,428 7 348 7 B C, Socrates has fascinated and inspired men and women for over two thousand. years All five of the major schools of ancient Greece Academics Peripatetics. Epicureans Stoics and Cynics were influenced by his thought Some of the early. Christian thinkers such as Justin Martyr considered him a proto Christian. while others such as St Augustine who rejected this view still expressed deep. admiration for Socrates ethical life More recently existentialists have found in. Socrates admonition know thyself an encapsulation of their thought and oppo. nents of unjust laws have seen in Socrates trial a blueprint for civil disobedience. In short Socrates is one of the most admired men who ever lived. The Athens into which Socrates was born in 470 B C was a city still living in. the flush of its epic victory over the Persians and it was bursting with new ideas. The playwrights Euripides and Sophocles were young boys and Pericles the. great Athenian democrat was still a young man The Parthenon s foundation was. laid when Socrates was twenty two and its construction was completed fifteen. years later, Socrates was the son of Sophroniscus a sculptor and of Phaenarete a mid. wife As a boy Socrates received a classical Greek education in music gymnas. tics and grammar or the study of language and he decided early on to become. a sculptor like his father Tradition says he was a gifted artist who fashioned. impressively simple statues of the Graces He married a woman named. Xanthippe and together they had three children He took an early interest in the. developing science of the Milesians and then he served for a time in the army. When he was a middle aged man Socrates friend Chaerephon asked the ora. cle at Delphi if there was anyone who was wiser than Socrates For once the. mysterious oracle gave an unambiguous answer No one When Socrates heard. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 4. of the incident he was confused He knew that he was not a wise man So he set. out to find a wiser man to prove the answer wrong Socrates later described the. method and results of his mission, So I examined the man I need not tell you his name he was a politician but this was. the result Athenians When I conversed with him I came to see that though a great. many persons and most of all he himself thought that he was wise yet he was not. wise Then I tried to prove to him that he was not wise though he fancied that he was. By so doing I made him indignant and many of the bystanders So when I went away. I thought to myself I am wiser than this man neither of us knows anything that is. really worth knowing but he thinks that he has knowledge when he has not while. I having no knowledge do not think that I have I seem at any rate to be a little wiser. than he is on this point I do not think that I know what I do not know Next I went to. another man who was reputed to be still wiser than the last with exactly the same. result And there again I made him and many other men indignant Apology 21c. As Socrates continued his mission by interviewing the politicians poets and arti. sans of Athens young men followed along They enjoyed seeing the authority fig. ures humiliated by Socrates intense questioning Those in authority however were. not amused Athens was no longer the powerful self confident city of 470 B C. the year of Socrates birth An exhausting succession of wars with Sparta the. Peloponnesian Wars and an enervating series of political debacles had left the city. narrow in vision and suspicious of new ideas and of dissent In 399 B C Meletus and. Anytus brought an indictment of impiety and corrupting the youth against Socrates. As recorded in the Apology the Athenian assembly found him guilty by a vote of 281. to 220 and sentenced him to death His noble death is described incomparably in the. closing pages of the Phaedo by Plato, Socrates wrote nothing and our knowledge of his thought comes exclusively. from the report of others The playwright Aristophanes 455 375 B C satirized. Socrates in his comedy The Clouds His caricature of Socrates as a cheat and. charlatan was apparently so damaging that Socrates felt compelled to offer a. rebuttal before the Athenian assembly see the Apology following The military. general Xenophon ca 430 350 B C honored his friend Socrates in his Apology. of Socrates his Symposium and later in his Memorabilia Recollections of. Socrates In an effort to defend his dead friend s memory Xenophon s writings. illumine Socrates life and character Though born fifteen years after the death of. Socrates Aristotle 384 322 B C left many fascinating allusions to Socrates in. his philosophic works as did several later Greek philosophers But the primary. source of our knowledge of Socrates comes from one of those young men who. followed him Plato, Plato was probably born in 428 7 B C He had two older brothers Adeimantus and. Glaucon who appear in Plato s Republic and a sister Potone Though he may have. known Socrates since childhood Plato was probably nearer twenty when he came under. the intellectual spell of Socrates The death of Socrates made an enormous impression on. Plato and contributed to his call to bear witness to posterity of the best the wisest and. most just person that he knew Phaedo 118 Though Plato was from a distinguished. family and might have followed his relatives into politics he chose philosophy. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 5. INTRODUCTION 5, Following Socrates execution the twenty eight year old Plato left Athens and. traveled for a time He is reported to have visited Egypt and Cyrene though some. scholars doubt this During this time he wrote his early dialogues on Socrates life and. teachings He also visited Italy and Sicily where he became the friend of Dion a rela. tive of Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse Sicily, On returning to Athens from Sicily Plato founded a school which came to be. called the Academy One might say it was the world s first university and it endured as. a center of higher learning for nearly one thousand years until the Roman emperor. Justinian closed it in A D 529 Except for two later trips to Sicily where he unsuccess. fully sought to institute his political theories Plato spent the rest of his life at the. Athenian Academy Among his students was Aristotle Plato died at eighty in 348 7 B C. Plato s influence was best described by the twentieth century philosopher Alfred. North Whitehead when he said The safest general characterization of the European. philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. It is difficult to separate the ideas of Plato from those of his teacher Socrates In virtu. ally all of Plato s dialogues Socrates is the main character and it is possible that in the. early dialogues Plato is recording his teacher s actual words But in the later dialogues. Socrates gives Plato s views views that in some cases in fact the historical. Socrates denied, The first four dialogues presented in this text describe the trial and death of. Socrates and are arranged in narrative order The first the Euthyphro takes place as. Socrates has just learned of the indictment against him He strikes up a conversation. with a theologian so sure of his piety that he is prosecuting his own father for murder. The dialogue moves on unsuccessfully to define piety Along the way Socrates asks a. question that has vexed philosophers and theologians for centuries Is something good. because the gods say it is or do the gods say it is good because it is. The next dialogue the Apology is generally regarded as one of Plato s first and. as eminently faithful to what Socrates said at his trial on charges of impiety and corrup. tion of youth The speech was delivered in public and heard by a large audience Plato. has Socrates mention that Plato was present and there is no need to doubt the historical. veracity of the speech at least in essentials There are two breaks in the narrative one. after Socrates defense during which the Athenians vote guilty and one after. Socrates proposes an alternative to the death penalty during which the Athenians. decide on death This dialogue includes Socrates famous characterization of his mis. sion and purpose in life, In the Crito Plato has Crito visit Socrates in prison to assure him that his escape. from Athens has been well prepared and to persuade him to consent to leave Socrates. argues that one has an obligation to obey the state even when it orders one to suffer. wrong That Socrates in fact refused to leave is certain that he used the arguments. Plato ascribes to him is less certain In any case anyone who has read the Apology will. agree that after his speech Socrates could not well escape. The moving account of Socrates death is given at the end of the Phaedo the last. of our group of dialogues There is common agreement that this dialogue was written. much later than the other three and that the earlier part of the dialogue with its Platonic. doctrine of Forms and immortality uses Socrates as a vehicle for Plato s own ideas. These first four dialogues are given in the F J Church translation. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 6. There are few books in Western civilization that have had the impact of Plato s. Republic aside from the Bible perhaps none Like the Bible there are also few books. whose interpretation and evaluation have differed so widely Apparently it is a descrip. tion of Plato s ideal society a utopian vision of the just state possible only if philoso. phers were kings But some see the following suggested readings claim that its. purpose is not to give a model of the ideal state but to show the impossibility of such a. state and to convince aspiring philosophers to shun politics Evaluations of the Republic. have also varied widely from the criticisms of Karl Popper who denounced the. Republic as totalitarian to the admiration of more traditional interpreters such as. Francis MacDonald Cornford and Gregory Vlastos, Given the importance of this work and the diversity of opinions concerning its. point and value it was extremely difficult to decide which sections of the Republic to. include in this series I chose to include the discussion of justice from Books I and II. the descriptions of the guardians and of the noble lie from Book III the discussions of. the virtues and the soul in Book IV the presentations of the guardians qualities and. lifestyles in Book V and the key sections on knowledge including the analogy of the. line and the myth of the cave from the end of Book VI and the beginning of Book VII. I admit that space constraints have forced me to exclude important sections Ideally the. selections chosen will whet the student s appetite to read the rest of this classic I am. pleased to offer the Republic in the outstanding new translation by Joe Sachs. The marginal page numbers are those of all scholarly editions Greek English. German or French, For studies of Socrates see the classic A E Taylor Socrates The Man and His Thought. London Methuen 1933 the second half of Volume III of W K C Guthrie The. History of Greek Philosophy Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1969 Hugh H. Benson Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates Oxford Oxford University Press 1992. Anthony Gottlieb Socrates London Routledge 1999 Christopher Taylor s pair of. introductions Socrates and Socrates A Very Short Introduction both Oxford Oxford. University Press 1999 and 2000 Nalin Ranasingle The Soul of Socrates Ithaca NY. Cornell University Press 2000 Thomas C Brickhouse and Nicholas D Smith The. Philosophy of Socrates Boulder CO Westview 2000 and James Colaiazo Socrates. Against Athens London Routledge 2001 For collections of essays see Gregory. Vlastos ed The Philosophy of Socrates Garden City NY Doubleday 1971 Hugh H. Benson ed Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates Oxford Oxford University Press. 1992 Terence Irwin ed Socrates and His Contemporaries Hamden CT Garland. Publishing 1995 and the multivolume William J Prior ed Socrates Oxford. Routledge 1996 and Lindsay Judson and Vassilis Karasmanis eds Remembering. Socrates Philosophical Essays Oxford Oxford University Press 2006 For discus. sions of the similarities and differences between the historical Socrates and the. Socrates of the Platonic dialogues see Gregory Vlastos Socrates Ironist and Moral. Philosopher Ithaca NY Cornell University Press 1991 especially Chapters 2 and 3. Books about Plato are legion Once again the work of W K C Guthrie is sensible. comprehensive yet readable See Volumes IV and V of his The History of Greek. Philosophy Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1975 and 1978 Paul Shorey. What Plato Said Chicago Chicago University Press 1933 and G M A Grube. Plato s Thought London Methuen 1935 are classic treatments of Plato while Robert. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 7. INTRODUCTION 7, Brumbaugh Plato for a Modern Age New York Macmillan 1964 I M Crombie An. Examination of Plato s Doctrines two volumes New York Humanities Press. 1963 1969 R M Hare Plato Oxford Oxford University Press 1982 David J. Melling Understanding Plato Oxford Oxford University Press 1987 Bernard. Williams Plato London Routledge 1999 Julius Moravcsik Plato and Platonism. Oxford Basil Blackwell 2000 and Gail Fine The Oxford Handbook of Plato. Oxford Oxford University Press 2008 are more recent studies For collections of. essays see Gregory Vlastos ed Plato A Collection of Critical Essays two volumes. Garden City NY Doubleday 1971 Richard Kraut ed The Cambridge Companion. to Plato Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1991 Nancy Tuana ed Feminist. Interpretations of Plato College Park PA Pennsylvania State University Press 1994. Terence Irwin ed Plato s Ethics and Plato s Metaphysics and Epistemology both. Hamden CT Garland Publishing 1995 Gregory Vlastos ed Studies in Greek. Philosophy Volume II Socrates Plato and Their Tradition Princeton NJ Princeton. University Press 1995 Nicholas D Smith ed Plato Critical Assessments London. Routledge 1998 Gail Fine ed Plato Oxford Oxford University Press 2000 and. Gerald A Press ed Who Speaks for Plato Lanham MD Rownan and Littlefield. 2000 C D C Reeve Socrates in the Apology Indianapolis IN Hackett 1989 pro. vides insights on this key dialogue For further reading on the Republic see Nicholas P. White A Companion to Plato s Republic Indianapolis IN Hackett 1979 Julia. Annas An Introduction to Plato s Republic Oxford Clarendon Press 1981 Nickolas. Pappas Routledge Guidebook to Plato and the Republic Oxford Routledge 1995. Daryl Rice A Guide to Plato s Republic Oxford Oxford University Press 1997. Richard Kraut ed Plato s Republic Critical Essays Lanham MD Rowan. Littlefield 1997 Sean Sayers Plato s Republic An Introduction Edinburgh. Edinburgh University Press 1999 Stanley Rosen Plato s Republic New Haven CT. Yale University Press 2005 Luke Purshouse Plato s Republic A Reader s Guide. London Continuum 2006 and C R F Ferrari ed The Cambridge Companion. to Plato s Republic Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2007 Terence Irwin. Plato s Ethics Oxford Oxford University Press 1995 and Gabriela Roxanna Carone. Plato s Cosmology and Its Ethical Dimensions Cambridge Cambridge University. Press 2005 examine several dialogues while thoroughly exploring Plato s ethical. thought Finally for unusual interpretations of Plato and his work see Werner Jaeger. Paideia Vols II and III translated by Gilbert Highet New York Oxford University. Press 1939 1943 Karl R Popper The Open Society and Its Enemies Volume I The. Spell of Plato Princeton NJ Princeton University Press 1962 and Allan Bloom s. interpretive essay in Plato Republic translated by Allan Bloom New York Basic. Books 1968, M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 8. Characters,Scene The Hall of the King, 2 EUTHYPHRO What in the world are you doing here in the king s hall Socrates. Why have you left your haunts in the Lyceum You surely cannot have a suit before. him as I have, SOCRATES The Athenians Euthyphro call it an indictment not a suit. b EUTHYPHRO What Do you mean that someone is prosecuting you I cannot. believe that you are prosecuting anyone yourself,SOCRATES Certainly I am not. EUTHYPHRO Then is someone prosecuting you,SOCRATES Yes. EUTHYPHRO Who is he, SOCRATES I scarcely know him myself Euthyphro I think he must be some. unknown young man His name however is Meletus and his district Pitthis if you can. call to mind any Meletus of that district a hook nosed man with lanky hair and rather. a scanty beard, EUTHYPHRO I don t know him Socrates But tell me what is he prosecuting you for. c SOCRATES What for Not on trivial grounds I think It is no small thing for so. young a man to have formed an opinion on such an important matter For he he says. knows how the young are corrupted and who are their corrupters He must be a wise. d man who observing my ignorance is going to accuse me to the state as his mother of. corrupting his friends I think that he is the only one who begins at the right point in his. political reforms for his first care is to make the young men as good as possible just as. a good farmer will take care of his young plants first and after he has done that of the. 3 others And so Meletus I suppose is first clearing us away who as he says corrupt the. young men growing up and then when he has done that of course he will turn his. attention to the older men and so become a very great public benefactor Indeed that is. only what you would expect when he goes to work in this way. EUTHYPHRO I hope it may be so Socrates but I fear the opposite It seems to me. that in trying to injure you he is really setting to work by striking a blow at the founda. tion of the state But how tell me does he say that you corrupt the youth. b SOCRATES In a way which sounds absurd at first my friend He says that I am a. maker of gods and so he is prosecuting me he says for inventing new gods and for not. believing in the old ones, EUTHYPHRO I understand Socrates It is because you say that you always have a. divine guide So he is prosecuting you for introducing religious reforms and he is going. into court to arouse prejudice against you knowing that the multitude are easily prejudiced. The anachronistic title king was retained by the magistrate who had jurisdiction over crimes affect. ing the state religion, Plato Euthyphro translated by F J Church New York Macmillan Library of the Liberal Arts 1963. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 9. EUTHYPHRO 9,The Acropolis and the Parthenon, a The Parthenon Athens built 477 438 B C The Parthenon dedicated to Athena patron deity of. Athens was at one period rededicated to the Christian Virgin Mary and then later became a Turkish. mosque In 1687 a gunpowder explosion created the ruin we see today The Doric shell remains as a. monument to ancient architectural engineering expertise and to a sense of classical beauty and order. Stergios Svarnas D A Harissiadis Benaki Museum, b Restored plan of the Acropolis 400 B C The history of the Acropolis is as varied as the style and size of. the temples and buildings constructed atop the ancient site Library of Congress. c This model of the Acropolis of Athens recreates the complexity of fifth century B C public space. which included centers for worship public forum and entertainment With permission of the Royal. Ontario Museum ROM, d Doric Ionic and Corinthian columns with their characteristic capitals Library of Congress. about such matters Why they laugh even at me as if I were out of my mind when I talk. about divine things in the assembly and tell them what is going to happen and yet I have c. never foretold anything which has not come true But they are resentful of all people like. us We must not worry about them we must meet them boldly. SOCRATES My dear Euthyphro their ridicule is not a very serious matter The. Athenians it seems to me may think a man to be clever without paying him much. attention so long as they do not think that he teaches his wisdom to others But as soon. as they think that he makes other people clever they get angry whether it be from d. resentment as you say or for some other reason, EUTHYPHRO I am not very anxious to test their attitude toward me in this matter. SOCRATES No perhaps they think that you are reserved and that you are not anx. ious to teach your wisdom to others But I fear that they may think that I am for my. love of men makes me talk to everyone whom I meet quite freely and unreservedly and. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 10. without payment Indeed if I could I would gladly pay people myself to listen to me If. then as I said just now they were only going to laugh at me as you say they do at you. it would not be at all an unpleasant way of spending the day to spend it in court jok. ing and laughing But if they are going to be in earnest then only prophets like you can. tell where the matter will end, EUTHYPHRO Well Socrates I dare say that nothing will come of it Very likely. you will be successful in your trial and I think that I shall be in mine. SOCRATES And what is this suit of yours Euthyphro Are you suing or being sued. EUTHYPHRO I am suing,SOCRATES Whom, 4 EUTHYPHRO A man whom people think I must be mad to prosecute. SOCRATES What Has he wings to fly away with, EUTHYPHRO He is far enough from flying he is a very old man. SOCRATES Who is he,EUTHYPHRO He is my father,SOCRATES Your father my good man. EUTHYPHRO He is indeed, SOCRATES What are you prosecuting him for What is the accusation. EUTHYPHRO Murder Socrates, b SOCRATES Good heavens Euthyphro Surely the multitude are ignorant of what is. right I take it that it is not everyone who could rightly do what you are doing only a. man who was already well advanced in wisdom,EUTHYPHRO That is quite true Socrates. SOCRATES Was the man whom your father killed a relative of yours But of. course he was You would never have prosecuted your father for the murder of a. EUTHYPHRO You amuse me Socrates What difference does it make whether. the murdered man were a relative or a stranger The only question that you have to. ask is did the murderer kill justly or not If justly you must let him alone if unjustly. c you must indict him for murder even though he share your hearth and sit at your. table The pollution is the same if you associate with such a man knowing what he. has done without purifying yourself and him too by bringing him to justice In the. present case the murdered man was a poor laborer of mine who worked for us on our. farm in Naxos While drunk he got angry with one of our slaves and killed him My. father therefore bound the man hand and foot and threw him into a ditch while he. sent to Athens to ask the priest what he should do While the messenger was gone he. entirely neglected the man thinking that he was a murderer and that it would be no. d great matter even if he were to die And that was exactly what happened hunger and. cold and his bonds killed him before the messenger returned And now my father and. the rest of my family are indignant with me because I am prosecuting my father for. the murder of this murderer They assert that he did not kill the man at all and they. say that even if he had killed him over and over again the man himself was a mur. e derer and that I ought not to concern myself about such a person because it is impi. ous for a son to prosecute his father for murder So little Socrates do they know the. divine law of piety and impiety, SOCRATES And do you mean to say Euthyphro that you think that you under. stand divine things and piety and impiety so accurately that in such a case as you have. stated you can bring your father to justice without fear that you yourself may be doing. something impious, M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 11. EUTHYPHRO 11, EUTHYPHRO If I did not understand all these matters accurately Socrates I should. not be worth much Euthyphro would not be any better than other men 5. SOCRATES Then my dear Euthyphro I cannot do better than become your pupil. and challenge Meletus on this very point before the trial begins I should say that I had. always thought it very important to have knowledge about divine things and that now. when he says that I offend by speaking carelessly about them and by introducing. reforms I have become your pupil And I should say Meletus if you acknowledge b. Euthyphro to be wise in these matters and to hold the correct belief then think the same. of me and do not put me on trial but if you do not then bring a suit not against me but. against my master for corrupting his elders namely myself whom he corrupts by his. teaching and his own father whom he corrupts by admonishing and punishing him. And if I did not succeed in persuading him to release me from the suit or to indict you. in my place then I could repeat my challenge in court. EUTHYPHRO Yes by Zeus Socrates I think I should find out his weak points if he. were to try to indict me I should have a good deal to say about him in court long before c. I spoke about myself, SOCRATES Yes my dear friend and knowing this I am anxious to become your. pupil I see that Meletus here and others too seem not to notice you at all but he sees. through me without difficulty and at once prosecutes me for impiety Now therefore. please explain to me what you were so confident just now that you knew Tell me what d. are righteousness and sacrilege with respect to murder and everything else I suppose. that piety is the same in all actions and that impiety is always the opposite of piety and. retains its identity and that as impiety it always has the same character which will be. found in whatever is impious,EUTHYPHRO Certainly Socrates I suppose so. SOCRATES Tell me then what is piety and what is impiety. EUTHYPHRO Well then I say that piety means prosecuting the unjust individual. who has committed murder or sacrilege or any other such crime as I am doing now. whether he is your father or your mother or whoever he is and I say that impiety means e. not prosecuting him And observe Socrates I will give you a clear proof which I have. already given to others that it is so and that doing right means not letting off unpun. ished the sacrilegious man whosoever he may be Men hold Zeus to be the best and the. most just of the gods and they admit that Zeus bound his own father Cronos for 6. wrongfully devouring his children and that Cronos in his turn castrated his father for. similar reasons And yet these same men are incensed with me because I proceed. against my father for doing wrong So you see they say one thing in the case of the. gods and quite another in mine, SOCRATES Is not that why I am being prosecuted Euthyphro I mean because. I find it hard to accept such stories people tell about the gods I expect that I shall be. found at fault because I doubt those stories Now if you who understand all these mat. ters so well agree in holding all those tales true then I suppose that I must yield to your b. authority What could I say when I admit myself that I know nothing about them But. tell me in the name of friendship do you really believe that these things have actually. EUTHYPHRO Yes and more amazing things too Socrates which the multitude do. not know of, SOCRATES Then you really believe that there is war among the gods and bitter. hatreds and battles such as the poets tell of and which the great painters have depicted c. in our temples notably in the pictures which cover the robe that is carried up to the. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 12. Acropolis at the great Panathenaic festival Are we to say that these things are true. EUTHYPHRO Yes Socrates and more besides As I was saying I will report to you. many other stories about divine matters if you like which I am sure will astonish you. when you hear them, SOCRATES I dare say You shall report them to me at your leisure another time At. present please try to give a more definite answer to the question which I asked you just. d now What I asked you my friend was What is piety and you have not explained it to. me to my satisfaction You only tell me that what you are doing now namely prosecut. ing your father for murder is a pious act,EUTHYPHRO Well that is true Socrates. SOCRATES Very likely But many other actions are pious are they not Euthyphro. EUTHYPHRO Certainly, SOCRATES Remember then I did not ask you to tell me one or two of all the many. e pious actions that there are I want to know what is characteristic of piety which makes. all pious actions pious You said I think that there is one characteristic which makes all. pious actions pious and another characteristic which makes all impious actions impi. ous Do you not remember,EUTHYPHRO I do, SOCRATES Well then explain to me what is this characteristic that I may have it. to turn to and to use as a standard whereby to judge your actions and those of other. men and be able to say that whatever action resembles it is pious and whatever does. not is not pious, EUTHYPHRO Yes I will tell you that if you wish Socrates. SOCRATES Certainly I do, 7 EUTHYPHRO Well then what is pleasing to the gods is pious and what is not. pleasing to them is impious, SOCRATES Fine Euthyphro Now you have given me the answer that I wanted. Whether what you say is true I do not know yet But of course you will go on to prove. that it is true,EUTHYPHRO Certainly, SOCRATES Come then let us examine our statement The things and the men. that are pleasing to the gods are pious and the things and the men that are displeasing. to the gods are impious But piety and impiety are not the same they are as opposite as. possible was not that what we said,EUTHYPHRO Certainly. SOCRATES And it seems the appropriate statement,b EUTHYPHRO Yes Socrates certainly. SOCRATES Have we not also said Euthyphro that there are quarrels and disagree. ments and hatreds among the gods,EUTHYPHRO We have. SOCRATES But what kind of disagreement my friend causes hatred and anger. Let us look at the matter thus If you and I were to disagree as to whether one number. c were more than another would that make us angry and enemies Should we not settle. such a dispute at once by counting,EUTHYPHRO Of course. SOCRATES And if we were to disagree as to the relative size of two things we. should measure them and put an end to the disagreement at once should we not. EUTHYPHRO Yes, M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 13. EUTHYPHRO 13, SOCRATES And should we not settle a question about the relative weight of two. things by weighing them,EUTHYPHRO Of course, SOCRATES Then what is the question which would make us angry and enemies if. we disagreed about it and could not come to a settlement Perhaps you have not an d. answer ready but listen to mine Is it not the question of the just and unjust of the hon. orable and the dishonorable of the good and the bad Is it not questions about these. matters which make you and me and everyone else quarrel when we do quarrel if we. differ about them and can reach no satisfactory agreement. EUTHYPHRO Yes Socrates it is disagreements about these matters. SOCRATES Well Euthyphro the gods will quarrel over these things if they quarrel. at all will they not,EUTHYPHRO Necessarily, SOCRATES Then my good Euthyphro you say that some of the gods think one e. thing just the others another and that what some of them hold to be honorable or good. others hold to be dishonorable or evil For there would not have been quarrels among. them if they had not disagreed on these points would there. EUTHYPHRO You are right, SOCRATES And each of them loves what he thinks honorable and good and just. and hates the opposite does he not,EUTHYPHRO Certainly. SOCRATES But you say that the same action is held by some of them to be just. and by others to be unjust and that then they dispute about it and so quarrel and fight 8. among themselves Is it not so,EUTHYPHRO Yes, SOCRATES Then the same thing is hated by the gods and loved by them and the. same thing will be displeasing and pleasing to them. EUTHYPHRO Apparently, SOCRATES Then according to your account the same thing will be pious and. EUTHYPHRO So it seems, SOCRATES Then my good friend you have not answered my question I did not. ask you to tell me what action is both pious and impious but it seems that whatever is. pleasing to the gods is also displeasing to them And so Euthyphro I should not be sur b. prised if what you are doing now in punishing your father is an action well pleasing to. Zeus but hateful to Cronos and Uranus and acceptable to Hephaestus but hateful to. Hera and if any of the other gods disagree about it pleasing to some of them and dis. pleasing to others, EUTHYPHRO But on this point Socrates I think that there is no difference of. opinion among the gods they all hold that if one man kills another unjustly he must be. SOCRATES What Euthyphro Among mankind have you never heard disputes c. whether a man ought to be punished for killing another man unjustly or for doing some. other unjust deed, EUTHYPHRO Indeed they never cease from these disputes especially in courts of. justice They do all manner of unjust things and then there is nothing which they will. not do and say to avoid punishment, SOCRATES Do they admit that they have done something unjust and at the same. time deny that they ought to be punished Euthyphro. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 14. EUTHYPHRO No indeed that they do not, SOCRATES Then it is not the case that there is nothing which they will not do and. say I take it they do not dare to say or argue that they must not be punished if they have. d done something unjust What they say is that they have not done anything unjust is it. EUTHYPHRO That is true, SOCRATES Then they do not disagree over the question that the unjust individual. must be punished They disagree over the question who is unjust and what was done. and when do they not,EUTHYPHRO That is true, SOCRATES Well is not exactly the same thing true of the gods if they quarrel. about justice and injustice as you say they do Do not some of them say that the others. are doing something unjust while the others deny it No one I suppose my dear friend. e whether god or man dares to say that a person who has done something unjust must not. be punished,EUTHYPHRO No Socrates that is true by and large. SOCRATES I take it Euthyphro that the disputants whether men or gods if the. gods do disagree disagree over each separate act When they quarrel about any act. some of them say that it was just and others that it was unjust Is it not so. EUTHYPHRO Yes, 9 SOCRATES Come then my dear Euthyphro please enlighten me on this point. What proof have you that all the gods think that a laborer who has been imprisoned for. murder by the master of the man whom he has murdered and who dies from his impris. onment before the master has had time to learn from the religious authorities what he. should do dies unjustly How do you know that it is just for a son to indict his father. and to prosecute him for the murder of such a man Come see if you can make it clear. b to me that the gods necessarily agree in thinking that this action of yours is just and if. you satisfy me I will never cease singing your praises for wisdom. EUTHYPHRO I could make that clear enough to you Socrates but I am afraid that. it would be a long business, SOCRATES I see you think that I am duller than the judges To them of course you. will make it clear that your father has committed an unjust action and that all the gods. agree in hating such actions, EUTHYPHRO I will indeed Socrates if they will only listen to me. c SOCRATES They will listen if they think that you are a good speaker But while. you were talking it occurred to me to ask myself this question suppose that Euthyphro. were to prove to me as clearly as possible that all the gods think such a death unjust. how has he brought me any nearer to understanding what piety and impiety are This. particular act perhaps may be displeasing to the gods but then we have just seen that. piety and impiety cannot be defined in that way for we have seen that what is displeas. d ing to the gods is also pleasing to them So I will let you off on this point Euthyphro. and all the gods shall agree in thinking your father s action wrong and in hating it if you. like But shall we correct our definition and say that whatever all the gods hate is impi. ous and whatever they all love is pious while whatever some of them love and others. hate is either both or neither Do you wish us now to define piety and impiety in this. EUTHYPHRO Why not Socrates, SOCRATES There is no reason why I should not Euthyphro It is for you to con. sider whether that definition will help you to teach me what you promised. M01 BAIR3861 06 SE C01 QXD 12 8 09 12 22 PM Page 15. EUTHYPHRO 15, EUTHYPHRO Well I should say that piety is what all the gods love and that impi e. ety is what they all hate, SOCRATES Are we to examine this definition Euthyphro and see if it is a good. one Or are we to be content to accept the bare statements of other men or of ourselves. without asking any questions Or must we examine the statements. EUTHYPHRO We must examine them But for my part I think that the definition is. right this time, SOCRATES We shall know that better in a little while my good friend Now consider 10. this question Do the gods love piety because it is pious or is it pious because they love it. EUTHYPHRO I do not understand you Socrates, SOCRATES I will try to explain myself we speak of a thing being carried and car. rying and being led and leading and being seen and seeing and you understand that all. such expressions mean different things and what the difference is. EUTHYPHRO Yes I think I understand, SOCRATES And we talk of a thing being loved of a thing loving and the two are. EUTHYPHRO Of course, SOCRATES Now tell me is a thing which is being carried in a state of being carried b. because it is carried or for some other reason,EUTHYPHRO No because it is carried. SOCRATES And a thing is in a state of being led because it is led and of being seen. because it is seen,EUTHYPHRO Certainly, SOCRATES Then a thing is not seen because it is in a state of being seen it is in a. state of being seen because it is seen and a thing is not led because it is in a state of. being led it is in a state of being led because it is led and a thing is not carried because. it is in a state of being carried it is in a state of being carried because it is carried Is my. meaning clear now Euthyphro I mean this if anything becomes or is affected it does. not become because it is in a state of becoming it is in a state of becoming because it c. becomes and it is not affected because it is in a state of being affected it is in a state of. being affected because it is affected Do you not agree. EUTHYPHRO I do, SOCRATES Is not that which is being loved in a state either of becoming or of. being affected in some way by something,EUTHYPHRO Certainly. SOCRATES Then the same is true here as in the former cases A thing is not loved. by those who love it because it is in a state of being loved it is in a state of being loved. because they love it,EUTHYPHRO Necessarily, SOCRATES Well then Euthyphro what do we say about piety Is it not loved by d. all the gods according to your definition,EUTHYPHRO Yes. SOCRATES Because it is pious or for some other reason. EUTHYPHRO No because it is pious, SOCRATES Then it is loved by the gods because it is pious it is not pious because. it is loved by them,EUTHYPHRO It seems so, SOCRATES But then what is pleasing to the gods is pleasing to them and is in a. state of being loved by them because they love it,.
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U.S. Mandatory Toy Standard: ASTM F963 JhMid PhDJonathan Midgett, Ph.D. Office of Hazard Identification and Reduction December 2009December 2009 These comments are those of the CPSC staff, have not been reviewed or approvedb d t il fl tth i f th C i id by, and may not necessarily reflect the views of, the Commission.
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